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Discharging tRNAs: a tug of war between translation and detoxification in Escherichia coli
Citation key 142.2016.avcilar
Author Avcilar-Kucukgoze, I. and Bartholomäus, A. and Cordero Varela, J. and Kaml, R. and Neubauer, P. and Budisa, N. and Ignatova, Z.
Pages 8324 - 8334
Year 2016
DOI 10.1093/nar/gkw697
Journal Nucleic Acids Res.
Volume 44
Abstract Translation is a central cellular process and is optimized for speed and fidelity. The speed of translation of a single codon depends on the concentration of aminoacyl-tRNAs. Here, we used microarray-based approaches to analyze the charging levels of tRNAs in Escherichia coli growing at different growth rates. Strikingly, we observed a non-uniform aminoacylation of tRNAs in complex media. In contrast, in minimal medium, the level of aminoacyl-tRNAs is more uniform and rises to approximately 60%. Particularly, the charging level of tRNASer, tRNACys, tRNAThr and tRNAHis is below 50% in complex medium and their aminoacylation levels mirror the degree that amino acids inhibit growth when individually added to minimal medium. Serine is among the most toxic amino acids for bacteria and tRNAsSer exhibit the lowest charging levels, below 10%, at high growth rate although intracellular serine concentration is plentiful. As a result some serine codons are among the most slowly translated codons. A large fraction of the serine is most likely degraded by L-serine-deaminase, which competes with the seryl-tRNA-synthetase that charges the tRNAsSer. These results indicate that the level of aminoacylation in complex media might be a competition between charging for translation and degradation of amino acids that inhibit growth.
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